Ukraine, Ideology, and Military Spending: Rethinking International Security – Brian D’Agostino


While literal fighting and killing has raged in Ukraine since Russia’s 24 February 2022 invasion, another kind of war is being waged in a parallel universe of ideas. This paper provides an overview of the Russian and “Western” ideologies that perpetuate the war. I then “reality test” competing explanations for the causes and continuation of the conflict using data on Russian and US/NATO military spending. The article concludes with a pathway to demilitarization and common security.

Short bio:

Brian D’Agostino, Ph.D. is President of the International Psychohistorical Association. He is the author of peer reviewed research in political psychology, numerous articles on psychohistory and public affairs, and The Middle Class Fights Back: How Progressive Movements Can Restore Democracy in America. Visit his website at